Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, ISSN: 2454-7352,Vol.: 19, Issue.: 1
Geochemical Characterization and Assessment of Groundwater Quality in Owerri Metropolis, South-Eastern Nigeria
C. Chukwuemeka Onyeanuna1*, Patience John2 and N. Temple Nwankwo3 1Department of Environment, Land and Infrastructure, Polytechnic University of Turin, Piedmont, Italy. 2Department of Geosciences, Federal University of Technology Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. 3Department of Agricultural Technology, Federal Polytechnic Oko, Anambra State, Nigeria.
C. Chukwuemeka Onyeanuna1*, Patience John2 and N. Temple Nwankwo3
1Department of Environment, Land and Infrastructure, Polytechnic University of Turin, Piedmont, Italy.
2Department of Geosciences, Federal University of Technology Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.
3Department of Agricultural Technology, Federal Polytechnic Oko, Anambra State, Nigeria.
(1) Dr. Kaveh Ostad-Ali-Askari, Department of Civil Engineering, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran.
(2) Dr. Wen-Cheng Liu, Department of Civil and Disaster Prevention Engineering, National United University, Taiwan and Taiwan Typhoon and Flood Research Institute, National United University, Taipei, Taiwan.
(1) Gopal Krishan, National Institute of Hydrology, India.
(2) S. Selvakumar, Centre for Geotechnology, Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, India.
(3) Ahoussi Kouassi Ernest, Universite Felix Houphouet Boigny, Cote D’ivoire.
(4) Dorota Porowska, University of Warsaw, Poland.
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A total of five borehole samples were collected from five towns in Owerri metropolis, South-eastern Nigeria and subjected to physio-chemical analysis using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) and other standard equipment with the aim of characterizing and analysing the groundwater quality indicators. These quality indicators are namely: pH, temperature, total hardness, turbidity, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, dissolved oxygen, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3-, SO42-, Cl-, NO3-, Fe2+, Zn2+, Pb2+, Cu2+, Mn2+, and Cr2+. With the aid of geochemical diagrams acquired using Aquachem 2014.2, we classified the groundwater samples into their respective hydrogeochemical facies, identified their relative similarity and demonstrated the irrigability of the groundwater. The results showed that the groundwater quality indicators occur in the groundwater in amounts that fall within their respective permissible limits as set by World Health Organization (WHO) Drinking Water Standard, and therefore ascertained the groundwater portable and suitable for drinking. The pH of the groundwater has a mean value of 6.7 with a standard deviation of 0.26. The relative abundance of the majority of cations follows this sequence - Na+ > Ca2+ > K+ > Mg2+, while that of the anions follow this sequence - HCO3- > Cl- > SO42- > NO3-. Heavy metals constituents of the groundwater follow this order of relative abundance - Zn2+ > Fe2+ > Mn2+ > Cu2+ > Cr2+ > Pb2+. Three hydrogeochemical facies were identified in the area and they are: the Na+—Cl- water type, the Mixed Ca2+-Na+-HCO3- water type and the Ca2+-Mg2+-HCO3- water type. Great similarities were identified between the geochemical composition of the samples and they are all evidently suitable for irrigation purposes. The TDS level and concentration of Ca2+, Mg2+ and Cl- demonstrated the freshness and softness of the groundwater, with no laxative effects. From series of computations and plots, silicate weathering and seawater intrusion were deduced to be the dominant factors controlling the groundwater chemistry, though there is evidence of poor rock dissolution – immature water-rock equilibrium.
Groundwater; aquifer; water quality; concentration; geology; geochemical; fresh water.
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